SCA に対応した決済フローの設計

New regulation known as Strong Customer Authentication, or SCA, is changing online payments in Europe. See the impact it may have on your payment flows and learn how Stripe can help.

Introduction

Last updated on September 14, 2019

Starting September 14, 2019 new payments regulation is being rolled out in Europe, which mandates Strong Customer Authentication (SCA) for many online payments in the European Economic Area (EEA). SCA is part of the second Payment Services Directive (PSD2).

To meet the new SCA requirements, a form of two-factor authentication is required for many online card payments in Europe. Without authentication, many payments may be declined by your customers’ banks. We designed new foundational payments APIs to help businesses handle this change and take full advantage of any SCA exemptions.

We recommend using this guide to understand how different types of payment flows have to change due to SCA, and to reference it as you redesign your payment flows.

How payments are changing

Traditional card payments usually involve two steps: authorization and capture. A payment is authorized when a customer’s bank or card issuer decides to approve a payment, and the payment is captured when the card is charged.

With SCA, there is an additional and mandatory step before authorization and capture: authentication. This step helps protect customers by preventing fraud. To authenticate a payment, a customer responds to a prompt from their bank and provides additional information. This may be something they know, like a password, something they use, like their phone, or something that’s part of who they are, like their fingerprint.

The most common way to authenticate a payment is a method called 3D Secure. You may recognize 3D Secure by its branded names, such as “Visa Secure” or “Mastercard Identity Check.” There’s a new version, called 3D Secure 2, that is expected to become the standard method to authenticate payments. You can learn about the differences between these methods in our 3D Secure 2 guide. Our new payments APIs, Stripe Billing, and the new version of Stripe Checkout, all support 3D Secure 2.

No matter what method you use, customers must be on-session to authenticate, which means they need to be using your website or app. Adding this step is be simpler for businesses that charge customers right away, and more complex for businesses that charge customers after they’ve left the checkout flow. (This is sometimes called off-session.)

The scenarios in this guide offer examples of how these three steps (authentication, authorization, and capture) can vary depending on how and when you charge your customers.

  1. 認証
    顧客がオンライン支払いの認証を行います。

    顧客は、銀行からの 3D セキュアのプロンプトに応答して追加情報を提供し、支払いの認証を行います。顧客の視点から 3D セキュアを見てみましょう

    認証が必要になるのは、支払いが免除に適格ではない場合や、顧客の銀行が免除の申請を拒否する場合です。Payment Intents API では、認証のステップを追加する前に、適格な免除を自動的に申請します。そのため、チェックアウトフローが簡単になり、コンバージョン率が保護されます。

    ポイント: 認証は、顧客がオンセッションであるか、Web サイトやアプリを使用しているときに行う必要があります。そのため、このステップは通常、顧客がチェックアウトフォームに入力するときに行われます。

  2. オーソリ
    企業は顧客の銀行に支払いの承認を求めます。

    顧客の銀行は支払いの承認または拒否を決定します。承認された場合、資金は保留になり、7 日間にわたり保証されます。オーソリリクエストが拒否された場合、顧客をオンセッションに戻し、支払いを再認証して、オーソリを再試行する手段が必要になります。

    ポイント: オーソリリクエストは認証された後でも顧客の銀行によって拒否されることがあります。顧客に十分な資金がない場合やカードの有効期限が切れている場合です。

  3. 最大 7 日間

    オーソリからキャプチャまでの期間は最大で 7 日間ですが、大半の企業はオーソリの直後に支払いをキャプチャします。

    ポイント: 顧客の銀行は、オーソリ後にキャプチャされていない支払いを “保留中” とすることがあります。

  4. キャプチャ
    企業が顧客のカードに請求して、決済が完了します。

Understanding exemptions

There are certain types of payments—such as low-risk transactions, fixed-amount subscriptions, phone sales, and merchant-initiated transactions—that may be exempt from SCA. Merchant-initiated transactions are payments made with a saved card when the customer is off-session. Common examples include a gym membership payment or utility bill. To qualify for this exemption, your business must have an agreement with your customer and have them authenticate their card when it’s being saved or authenticate the first payment. Our Strong Customer Authentication guide goes into greater detail about these exemptions and others.

Stripe’s SCA-ready payment APIs and products help businesses take full advantage of these opportunities by automatically requesting exemptions. When exemptions are accepted by your customers’ banks, your customers won’t have to authenticate, minimizing the impact on conversion.

However, businesses can’t rely on exemptions and must design their payment flows to authenticate customers when necessary. This is because the rules around exemptions depend on your customers’ banks. The banks evaluate each payment and decide whether an exemption applies—and individual banks will apply exemptions differently.

ビジネスシナリオ

SCA の影響と適用について説明するために、さまざまなビジネスモデルの決済フローで、認証のステップがどのように行われるか概要を示します。

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