What is annual recurring revenue (ARR)? A guide for SaaS businesses


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  1. Introduction
  2. How is ARR calculated?
  3. Why is ARR important for businesses?
  4. How does ARR affect planning?
  5. How do you improve and scale ARR?
  6. ARR health benchmarks
  7. Improving the accuracy of ARR reporting
  8. ARR projection risks and how to minimise them
    1. Overestimated growth
    2. Underestimated churn
    3. Market competition
    4. Pricing strategy
    5. Operational scalability
    6. Customer concentration
    7. Regulatory compliance

Annual recurring revenue (ARR) measures the recurring revenue components of a business over one year, including revenue from subscriptions, contracts and any other regular income streams.

ARR is an important metric for a business's financial health and stability, especially for businesses that rely on long-term customer relationships, such as software-as-a-service (SaaS) businesses. ARR helps businesses to forecast future revenue, assess value for investors or potential acquisitions, and informs key decisions.

Below, we'll cover the most important details of ARR: how to calculate it, how to report it accurately, what role it plays in the execution of growth-orientated SaaS businesses and how to mitigate common risks.

What's in this article?

  • How is ARR calculated?
  • Why is ARR important for businesses?
  • How does ARR affect planning?
  • How do you improve and scale ARR?
  • ARR health benchmarks
  • Improving the accuracy of ARR reporting
  • ARR projection risks and how to minimise them

How is ARR calculated?

Recurring revenue refers to customers paying for services or products on a subscription or recurring basis. Here's how to calculate ARR:

  • From monthly recurring revenue: If you have the monthly recurring revenue (MRR), you can multiply that number by 12 to get the ARR (ARR = MRR × 12).

  • From individual subscriptions: If you're starting with individual subscription amounts, add all the recurring revenue that you expect to receive from each customer over a year. If you have customers on different plans or billing cycles, calculate the annual revenue from each customer, and then add those amounts together. The ARR is the sum of the annual revenue from all customers. Here's how to calculate the annual revenue from each customer before adding it together:

    • For a customer paying monthly
      Annual Revenue from Customer = Monthly Payment × 12
    • For a customer paying quarterly
      Annual Revenue from Customer = Quarterly Payment × 4
  • Adjustments for new gains and losses: If you're calculating ARR at any point during the year and there are new subscriptions or churn (when customers leave), you should adjust your ARR calculation to reflect these changes. This means adding the annualised value of new subscriptions and subtracting the annualised value of lost subscriptions.

Why is ARR important for businesses?

ARR is a measure of current revenue and a lens that businesses can use to gauge their financial health, stability and growth trajectory, particularly for businesses with subscription-based or recurring revenue models, such as SaaS businesses. Here's a breakdown of the areas of business operation and financial forecasting in which ARR plays an important role:

  • Predictable future revenue: ARR offers a predictable view of future revenue streams, assuming that customer churn rates remain consistent and new sales grow steadily. This predictability allows for long-term financial planning and stability because it provides a reliable foundation upon which to base investment, expansion and operational decisions.

  • Business viability for investors: For investors and stakeholders, ARR is a key indicator of a business's viability and growth prospects. A strong ARR suggests a stable customer base and recurring income, which makes the business an attractive investment. Investors often use ARR to assess the business's valuation, especially in the absence of profitability, which is common in the growth phases of many tech businesses.

  • Resource allocation: Businesses can use ARR to make informed decisions about how to allocate resources for recruitment, development projects, marketing strategies and other capital expenditures.

  • Growth tracking: ARR allows businesses to track growth over time, providing a clear picture of whether the business is expanding or contracting. This tracking can be segmented by product, geography or customer type, and it offers detailed insights into which areas are performing well and which might require adjustments.

  • Financial modelling: Businesses can use ARR to construct detailed financial models that project future revenue, expenses and cash flow, which play an important role in valuation exercises – whether for fundraising, acquisitions or public offerings.

  • Market comparison: ARR allows businesses to benchmark themselves against peers and industry standards. This benchmarking can inform key decisions, competitive analysis and market positioning.

  • Customer retention: Although ARR focuses primarily on revenue, it also reflects customer satisfaction and retention. A growing ARR suggests good customer retention and product-market fit, whereas stagnant or declining ARR could indicate underlying issues with customer satisfaction or market competition.

How does ARR affect planning?

Businesses can use ARR to inform their planning in these areas:

  • Resource allocation and budgeting: ARR provides a clear picture of the stable, predictable income a business can expect over a year, enabling the business to make informed decisions about where to allocate resources. Businesses can plan their budgets for recruitment, research and development, marketing and other operational expenses based on their ARR.

  • Growth strategy development: By analysing ARR trends, businesses can identify growth patterns and areas that need improvement. These insights help with setting realistic growth targets and developing strategies to achieve them, whether through market expansion, product development or enhancing customer service.

  • Investment and expansion decisions: Knowing the ARR helps businesses decide when to invest in new ventures or expand into new markets. A strong ARR provides businesses with the confidence to invest in long-term projects that might not yield immediate returns but are important for sustained growth.

  • Risk management: ARR's predictability aids in risk assessment and management. Businesses can forecast potential revenue fluctuations and develop contingency plans to maintain stability in uncertain market conditions.

  • Performance evaluation: Businesses can use ARR to evaluate their performance against objectives and industry benchmarks. Leadership can assess whether a business is on track to meet its key goals and make necessary adjustments.

  • Pricing and product strategy: Insights from ARR can influence pricing product strategies. Businesses might decide to adjust pricing, introduce new product features, or focus on more lucrative markets or customer segments based on ARR trends.

  • Customer success and retention: Because ARR is heavily influenced by customer retention, the metric encourages businesses to focus on customer success as a priority. Strategies to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty contribute directly to ARR stability and growth.

  • Mergers and acquisitions: For businesses considering mergers or acquisitions, ARR can help evaluate the financial health and compatibility of potential partners or targets and whether such moves would be likely to enhance the business's recurring revenue streams.

How do you improve and scale ARR?

Improving and scaling ARR directly affects the growth and sustainability of businesses operating with subscription models. Here are strategies to improve and scale ARR:

  • Deep customer segmentation: Go beyond basic segmentation by analysing customer usage patterns, industry verticals and individual customer feedback to tailor your upsell, cross-sell and retention strategies. Use predictive analytics to identify customers most likely to upgrade or those most at risk of churning.

  • Advanced pricing optimisation: Use data analytics to perform price elasticity studies and determine the optimal pricing for different customer segments. Consider dynamic pricing models, in which prices are adjusted based on usage, demand or customer value.

  • Revenue diversification: Diversify revenue streams through a mix of subscription tiers, ancillary services and complementary product offerings, reducing reliance on any single revenue source.

  • Artificial intelligence (AI)-driven forecasting: Implement machine learning models to predict customer behaviour, ARR growth and churn rates more accurately. These models can help anticipate market trends and inform key decisions.

  • Product-led growth strategies: Focus on making your product a primary driver of customer acquisition, expansion and retention. Implement features within the product that encourage virality, improve user engagement and enable easier upselling.

  • Customer life-cycle value optimisation: Develop strategies to maximise the value of each customer over their life cycle. This could involve personalised engagement plans, targeted offers based on life-cycle stages, and proactive churn intervention measures.

  • Churn analysis and mitigation: Conduct detailed churn analysis to assess the underlying reasons behind customer attrition. Develop targeted strategies to address these issues, which might involve product improvements, customer service enhancements or tailored communication strategies.

  • Integration: Create application programming interfaces (APIs) that integrate other businesses with your service, expanding your reach and creating additional value for customers. Building an environment around your product can lead to more sticky customer relationships and new revenue opportunities.

  • Key acquisitions: Identify and acquire businesses that can provide complementary technologies, customer bases or entry into new markets.

  • Global market expansion: Tailor your market entry strategies to different regions, considering local competition, market demand, pricing sensitivity and cultural factors. Localisation of product offerings can help achieve global market penetration.

  • Invest in customer success and advocacy: Develop a sophisticated customer success framework that supports customers and turns them into advocates. Implement advanced net promoter score (NPS) tracking and analysis, customer advisory boards and user groups to deepen customer relationships and drive organic growth.

  • Value proposition reinforcement: Continually develop and reinforce your value proposition. Your ARR should come from delivering superior, evolving value to your customers, not from market inertia.

ARR health benchmarks

To evaluate the health of ARR, compare your business's metrics against industry benchmarks to gauge performance and identify areas for improvement. Here are key benchmarks to consider when assessing ARR health:

  • ARR growth rate: This is a primary indicator of the health and scalability of your business. Although the ideal growth rate can vary by industry and business size, the median annual growth rate for SaaS businesses with a US$1 million to US$5 million ARR was 52% to 59% in 2022. For startups or businesses in an expansion phase, the expected growth rate can be much higher.

  • Net revenue retention (NRR): NRR measures the revenue retained from existing customers over a given period, factoring in expansions, contractions and churn. An NRR over 100% indicates that revenue from existing customers is growing, which is a sign of ARR health. Industry leaders often achieve an NRR of 120% or more.

  • Customer acquisition cost (CAC) payback period: This metric indicates how long it takes to recoup the investment made in acquiring new customers. A shorter payback period (typically 12 to 18 months for SaaS businesses) indicates a healthy ARR because it suggests effective use of capital and faster growth.

  • Churn rate: Churn rate is the percentage of customers or revenue lost over a specific period. A low churn rate indicates strong customer retention and good ARR health. Although acceptable churn rates vary, many SaaS businesses strive for an annual churn rate of 5% to 7% or less.

  • Lifetime value to customer acquisition cost ratio (LTV:CAC): This ratio compares the lifetime value of a customer with the cost of acquiring a customer. A ratio of 3:1 or higher is often considered healthy and indicates that the revenue generated from a customer vastly exceeds the cost of acquiring them.

  • Rule of 40: A common benchmark for growth and profitability, the Rule of 40 states that a business's growth rate plus its profit margin should exceed 40%. For businesses focused on ARR, growth is often prioritised over profit, especially in the early stages, but this rule helps balance growth and profitability.

  • Customer expansion rate: This metric tracks the revenue growth from existing customers from upselling or cross-selling. A high expansion rate indicates that your customer base is becoming more valuable over time, contributing positively to ARR growth.

  • Gross margin: Although not specific to ARR, the gross margin can be informative about the overall profitability of your recurring revenue streams. High gross margins indicate that your business can generate ARR without proportional increases in cost.

  • ARR per employee: This metric provides insights into your team's productivity and how effectively your business generates ARR relative to its size. For SaaS businesses, the average annual revenue per employee was about US$145,000 in 2022, which is a decrease from US$170,000 in 2015. There's no one-size-fits-all benchmark, but comparing your business against industry averages or similar businesses can provide valuable insights.

Comparing your business's performance against those benchmarks can provide a comprehensive view of your ARR's health, revealing strengths and areas in which adjustments could drive improvement.

Improving the accuracy of ARR reporting

  • Standardise data collection: Ensure consistency in how you collect data across different departments to minimise discrepancies that could skew your ARR.

  • Automate calculations: Manual calculations are prone to human error. Use accounting software or integrate spreadsheets with your customer relationship management (CRM) system to automate ARR calculations.

  • Define clear renewal periods: Be consistent about how you define renewal periods (e.g. monthly vs annually) to ensure accurate representation of recurring revenue within your chosen time frame.

  • Track revenue changes: Monitor changes such as upgrades, downgrades or cancellations, and reflect these adjustments in your ARR calculations promptly to maintain real-time accuracy.

  • Reconcile regularly: Reconcile ARR reports with your accounting system routinely to identify and rectify any discrepancies.

  • Check data quality: Implement data quality checks to confirm the accuracy of details used in ARR calculations, such as customer and subscription information.

ARR projection risks and how to minimise them

Although ARR projections are important for planning, they come with inherent risks. Here's a look at the factors that can affect ARR projections, the risks they create and strategies to mitigate them:

Overestimated growth

Projecting overly optimistic growth in ARR can result in aggressive spending and investment based on revenues that might not materialise. This can strain cash reserves and potentially jeopardise the business's financial health.

  • Mitigation: Employ conservative growth estimates and scenario planning. Use a range of growth projections (pessimistic, realistic and optimistic) to prepare for a variety of outcomes. Update projections regularly, based on actual growth patterns and market feedback.

Underestimated churn

Failing to predict customer churn accurately can skew ARR projections, leading to an overestimated revenue forecast.

  • Mitigation: Invest in advanced churn prediction analytics. Monitor churn trends closely, segment your customer base to identify at-risk groups and implement targeted retention strategies. Determine the underlying reasons for churn, and address them proactively.

Market competition

Changes in market conditions or competitive landscapes can affect ARR, especially if a new competitor enters the market or if there's a shift in customer demand.

  • Mitigation: Continually monitor market trends and competitors. Develop a flexible business strategy that can adapt to changes, and invest in continual innovation to stay ahead of competitors.

Pricing strategy

Incorrect pricing can affect customer acquisition and retention, affecting the projected ARR.

  • Mitigation: Conduct regular pricing reviews and market comparisons to ensure that your pricing is aligned with the value you provide and market expectations. Test pricing changes on a small scale before a full rollout.

Operational scalability

If your business cannot scale operations to support growth, this can limit your ability to realise projected ARR.

  • Mitigation: Invest in flexible infrastructure and operational processes that can grow with your customer base. Review your operational capabilities regularly, and address any bottlenecks or scalability challenges.

Customer concentration

Heavy reliance on a few large customers can pose a risk to ARR because losing any of them could have a major impact on revenue.

  • Mitigation: Diversify your customer base to minimise the impact of losing individual customers. Develop strategies to broaden your market reach and attract a wider array of customers.

Regulatory compliance

Regulatory changes can affect your ability to generate or sustain ARR. This is especially relevant in certain highly regulated industries, such as financial services.

  • Mitigation: Stay abreast of regulatory changes and maintain compliance to avoid disruptions. Consider regulatory trends in your planning and risk assessments.

The content of this article is for general information and education purposes only and should not be construed as legal or tax advice. Stripe does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy, completeness, adequacy or currency of the information in the article. You should seek the advice of a competent lawyer or accountant who is licenced to practice in your jurisdiction for advice on your particular situation.

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