Subscription box business models – the basics: Different types and how to pick one


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  1. Introduction
  2. What are subscription boxes?
  3. How do subscription box business models work?
    1. Customer experience
    2. Operational
    3. Technical
    4. Transactions
    5. Customer relationships
  4. Types of subscription box business model
  5. Pros and cons of each subscription box business model
    1. Curated collection subscriptions
    2. Personalised subscriptions
    3. Replenishment subscriptions
    4. Access subscriptions
  6. Benefits of using subscription box business models
  7. How to pick the right subscription box business model

In a subscription box business model, a business delivers curated products to subscribers on a regular, recurring basis. Customers pay in advance for these boxes, which contain an assortment of products and usually focus on a specific theme or interest. Demand for this type of subscription is high – the global subscription box market was valued at over US$31 billion in 2023 and is forecast to exceed US$145 billion by 2032.

There is more than one type of subscription box model. Each one has different strengths and caters to different customer needs. Picking the right subscription model requires you to analyse your business goals and customer base carefully.

Businesses can gather data from these models to understand customer behaviour, preferences and consumption rates. These findings can guide inventory decisions, marketing strategies and product development. The consistent revenue stream is also attractive, allowing for better planning and budgeting, while the direct-to-customer nature of the model is great for customer engagement. Here's what you need to know to get the most out of a subscription box model.

What's in this article?

  • What are subscription boxes?
  • How do subscription box business models work?
  • Types of subscription box business model
  • Pros and cons of each subscription box business model
  • Benefits of using subscription box business models
  • How to pick the right subscription box business model

What are subscription boxes?

Subscription boxes are a service in which customers pay to receive regular deliveries of products. These boxes can be themed around different interests, such as beauty, food or hobbies, and often contain a surprise selection of items. The idea is to give people a convenient way to discover new products or enjoy something they already love.

The concept works on the basis of a recurring revenue model, whereby subscribers are billed periodically. The contents of these boxes are often curated by experts or personalised to the customer's preferences. They're also delivered to the subscriber's doorstep.

As subscription boxes have become more popular, a wide variety are now available. Options include snacks, cosmetics or dog toys. Some services provide a curated experience that introduces patrons to new products or brands, while others let subscribers choose items based on their tastes.

These boxes allow businesses to build a dedicated base of customers, gather data about preferences and – sometimes – clear out inventory. Customers receive something new related to their interests without needing to search for the product.

How do subscription box business models work?

In a subscription business model, businesses offer products or services on a recurring basis – typically monthly or annually. Here's how these models operate, from the customer and business perspectives:

Customer experience

  • Signing up: The customer signs up for the subscription service, often through a digital platform, where they provide their personal and payment information.

  • Customisation: Depending on the service, customers might fill in profiles or surveys to customise the subscription to their preferences.

  • Recurring delivery: The business delivers products or services on a regular schedule, and the customer doesn't have to reorder each time.

  • Customer service: Continual customer support is available to handle issues such as payment failures, product concerns or subscription changes.

  • Renewal and cancellation: Subscriptions renew automatically, but customers can usually cancel at any time through their account settings.


  • Inventory management: Businesses forecast and manage inventory based on subscription data, making sure they can fulfil ongoing orders.

  • Supplier relations: Regular orders provide leverage in negotiations with suppliers, possibly reducing costs.

  • Fulfilment: Businesses set up systems to handle the logistics of packing and dispatching subscription boxes regularly.

  • Returns and exchanges: Businesses must implement processes for customer returns and exchanges, which can be more complex with recurring shipments.


  • Payment processing: Automated systems handle subscription payments, declines and renewals. They integrate with payment gateways and merchant accounts.

  • Data security: Businesses must secure payment and customer data in accordance with standards such as the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) to protect against breaches.

  • Customer relationship management (CRM) systems: CRMs track customer interactions, preferences and service history to maintain a high level of service.

  • Analytics and reporting: Information from data analytics informs businesses about customer behaviour, churn rates and subscription performance.

  • Account management: Customers can manage their subscription preferences, payment methods and personal information online.


  • Initial transaction: After sign-up, an initial transaction is processed, and the payment details are stored (securely tokenised) for future billing cycles.

  • Recurring billing: The business bills the customer automatically, following a predetermined cycle. Billing systems must handle payment failures, send out alerts and retry payments if necessary.

  • Upgrades or changes: Customers can usually upgrade, downgrade or modify their subscriptions. Each change can trigger a prorated charge or credit.

Customer relationships

  • Ongoing engagement: Regular newsletters, updates and exclusive deals keep the relationship active.

  • Feedback loops: Collecting and acting on customer feedback is key for service improvement and retention.

  • Loyalty programmes: Reward systems for long-term subscribers can improve retention and increase customer lifetime value.

Subscription businesses require strong, agile and reliable systems for handling the complexity of recurring payments and customer management. They must invest in reliable software and hardware infrastructure, maintain a high level of data security, and ensure that they have the logistical capability to fulfil orders regularly.

Types of subscription box business model

The subscription box model has evolved and diversified, adapting to customer behaviour and preferences. Here's a closer look at four subscription box models:

  • Curated collection subscriptions: This model primarily appeals to customers for the unboxing experience. Businesses gather goods from different suppliers, focusing on a theme such as wellness, gourmet foods or tech gadgets. Subscribers don't know exactly what they'll get, but they trust the business's selection and are drawn to the surprise factor. Brands often collaborate with influencers or experts to curate these boxes, adding a sense of authority and exclusivity.

  • Personalised subscriptions: Personalised subscriptions customise the contents to individual tastes and preferences. Businesses can fine-tune each delivery through quizzes or subscriber feedback. Beauty boxes might target certain skin types or colour preferences, while food boxes might cater to dietary restrictions or flavour profiles. This personal touch can build loyalty.

  • Replenishment subscriptions: These subscriptions automatically send customers products that they use regularly, such as household staples or personal care items. The subscription must be timed so that the customer never runs low on their necessities. Businesses offering replenishment subscriptions must be diligent about delivery schedules and adapt to usage patterns to prevent overstocking or understocking, which can decrease the convenience for customers.

  • Access subscriptions: Also known as membership or club subscriptions, these provide an insider feel. In addition to purchasing products, subscribers pay for the privilege of being in the club – which can offer discounts, early access to new products, or exclusive content. This model relies on the perceived value of being part of a select group and often occurs with premium services or exclusive brand communities.

Challenges for businesses implementing a subscription box model include keeping their service fresh and relevant, managing logistics effectively and meeting customer expectations to reduce churn rates. Businesses that excel in this model listen to their customers, adapt swiftly to feedback and consistently deliver value in each box.

Pros and cons of each subscription box business model

Each model enables businesses to engage customers in different ways. The best choice depends on your business goals, product type and customer base. The key is to balance the benefits with the costs and challenges to create a sustainable, growth-oriented subscription service. Here's an overview of the pros and cons of each model:

Curated collection subscriptions


  • The element of surprise can delight customers, keeping them engaged and excited about each delivery.

  • Collaborations with influencers or experts can increase a box's appeal and draw in their followers.

  • These subscriptions have a wide reach because they can appeal to those who might not know exactly what they want but are eager to explore.


  • The surprise element can also be a drawback if customers receive items they don't like or need, causing dissatisfaction.

  • Curating boxes that appeal to a broad audience can be challenging and resource intensive.

  • Businesses risk higher return rates if products don't meet customer expectations.

Personalised subscriptions


  • Personalised products can increase customer satisfaction and retention rates.

  • Personalisation data can provide deep insights into individual customer preferences.

  • Businesses can charge a higher price because of the perceived value of personalisation.


  • This model requires sophisticated data collection and analysis to personalise boxes accurately, which can be technically demanding.

  • It's more logistically complex to manage individualised inventory for each subscriber.

  • Businesses might face potentially higher operational costs because of the personalisation process.

Replenishment subscriptions


  • High level of convenience for customers can translate into long-term loyalty.

  • This model creates predictable demand for businesses because products are essential and used regularly.

  • Inventory planning is simpler because products are typically standardised and consumed consistently.


  • There is limited opportunity to introduce new products because the focus is on replenishment.

  • Dependency on a small range of products can be risky if customer habits shift.

  • Businesses might face stiff competition from larger retailers or manufacturers providing similar services.

Access subscriptions


  • Businesses can create an exclusive community around a brand, increasing customer loyalty.

  • Membership fees add an additional revenue stream on top of product sales.

  • There is potential for higher margins because of member benefits, such as discounts on purchases.


  • Businesses must continually provide value to justify the membership cost, otherwise customers might cancel.

  • The value proposition must be strong to differentiate from non-subscription options.

  • The exclusivity might be diluted if membership is too easy to obtain.

Benefits of using subscription box business models

The subscription box model drives frequent customer engagement, relying on customer data to personalise marketing efforts and product development. This strategy targets customer desire for convenience and personalisation while allowing businesses to build lasting customer relationships. Here are some of the benefits of subscription box models:

  • Access to customer data: The subscription box model enables businesses to collect a rich set of data about customer preferences and behaviours. By analysing purchasing patterns, feedback and engagement, businesses can customise their inventory to better match what their customers want. This leads to more effective stock management and less overproduction, reducing waste and potentially lowering storage costs.

  • More refined and targeted marketing: This model allows for a more calculated marketing strategy. Businesses can use customer data to create highly targeted campaigns that are more likely to resonate. Businesses can spot trends and preferences early, allowing them to develop products that meet a proven demand.

  • Predictable revenue: Subscriptions bring in steady revenue, which makes financial planning and budget allocation more reliable. This can be especially advantageous for small businesses or startups that need to monitor their financial health closely.

  • Better customer relationships: The direct-to-customer nature of subscription boxes deepens the relationship between businesses and customers. Unlike traditional retail, in which the interaction might end at the point of sale, subscription models create an ongoing dialogue. Regular deliveries keep the brand in the customer's mind, and the anticipation of the next box can build a sense of excitement and loyalty.

Businesses can capitalise on these interactions by encouraging feedback, providing customisations and making subscribers feel like part of a community. This can increase retention rates, as customers start to believe in the brand.

How to pick the right subscription box business model

Consider the four types of subscription box model that we've described. Here's how to decide which one is the best fit for your business:

  • Understand your audience: Start by gathering data about customers in your target market. Who are they? What do they like, need or want? Conduct market research to gather as much information as possible. This will influence the type of product that you include and tell you which kind of subscription service they are most likely to engage with.

  • Analyse the product: Look at your products and determine how you can best deliver them to the customer. Are they items that would benefit from personalisation? Are they essential goods that would fit a replenishment model? Or are they more suited to a curated experience? Your products and how they are used will heavily influence the appropriate model.

  • Evaluate supply chain capabilities: Can your supply chain handle personalisation or regular deliveries? Assess your ability to source products, maintain inventory and manage delivery logistics before deciding on a model.

  • Assess technological requirements: Each subscription model requires different levels of technological support. Personalised subscriptions might need sophisticated algorithms and data analytics capabilities, while replenishment models might require systems to track usage and predict reorder times.

  • Financial modelling: Build financial models for each potential subscription type to see which has the most favourable economic outcome. Consider startup costs, operational expenses, profit margins and the feasibility of scaling. Consistent, predictable revenue might be appealing, but you should weigh that against the cost of goods sold and customer acquisition costs.

  • Competitor analysis: Research competitors to see what models they are using and why. Determine whether there is a gap in the market that your business could fill or whether there is a model that customers gravitate towards.

  • Risk assessment: Each model has its own risks. A curated collection requires the products to be kept fresh and interesting, while personalisation demands accurate data. Replenishment models risk becoming mundane, and access models must continually prove their value. Assess these risks in the context of your business.

  • Pilot testing: Before fully committing, run a pilot programme to test the subscription model you're considering. This can provide valuable insights into operational challenges and customer experiences without risking a full rollout.

  • Gather feedback and improve: Use customer feedback from the pilot to refine your subscription model. Continually improving your model based on customer behaviour and preferences will result in a better fit between your subscription service and your audience.

  • Launch and monitor: After choosing a model and refining it through testing, launch your subscription service. The launch is just the beginning of the work needed to make these services effective. Ongoing monitoring and analysis of customer behaviour, churn rates and feedback will be key in making incremental improvements.

Each step requires you to carefully consider what your customers want, what your business can handle operationally and what will be most profitable in the long term. The right model for your business will exemplify your brand values, meet customer needs, and be something that you can deliver on consistently and at scale.

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