Radar
Disputes and fraud
Responding to disputes
Categories

Dispute categories

Learn more about the different reasons for disputes that occur and how to respond accordingly.

When a payment is disputed by a cardholder, their card issuer assigns one of the following categories to best describe the reason for it. This is displayed in the Dashboard when viewing a dispute and as a value for the reason attribute of a Dispute object.

  • Credit not processed
  • Duplicate
  • Fraudulent
  • General
  • Product not received
  • Product unacceptable
  • Subscription canceled
  • Unrecognized

There are different recommendations for how to respond and what evidence you should provide. These depend on the dispute reason and what was purchased (physical product, digital product or service, or offline service). There is also general evidence you should include when responding to any kind of dispute. Including as much relevant information as possible in a response increases the likelihood that the dispute is found in your favor.

We recommend most users respond to disputes within the Dashboard. You you can also respond using the API to update a Dispute object and include the necessary evidence parameters.

 

Compelling evidence for Visa disputes

Visa has more stringent requirements on the evidence required to overturn disputes with a reason of fraudulent or product not received. You must provide at least one piece of compelling evidence—proof that the cardholder participated in the transaction, received any goods or services, or benefited from the transaction—with any dispute response. Certain types of compelling evidence are comprised of multiple pieces of information (e.g., customer’s IP address and their device’s location at the time of purchase). If you do not submit all required compelling evidence, a dispute cannot be overturned.

Look for evidence labeled as Compelling Evidence within these dispute categories. It’s also recommended that you collect and submit compelling evidence regardless of the card brand being used.  

Evidence submission

Refer to the evidence submission guide if you regularly lose disputes or find that your evidence isn’t relayed to the card issuer. You can also contact us with examples of your disputes so we can help ensure that your evidence is sufficient.

General evidence for all dispute categories

Including as much relevant information as possible when you submit a response increases the likelihood that the dispute is found in your favor. When responding to any type of dispute, make sure you include the following evidence (if available).

Evidence Parameter
The billing address provided by the customer (if the AVS check was successful). This field is automatically filled when possible. billing_address
The name of the customer. This field will be automatically filled when possible. customer_name
The email address of the customer. This field will be automatically filled when possible. customer_email_address
The IP address that the customer used when making the purchase. This field will be automatically filled when possible, and will be expanded to include geographical data before we send your evidence to the customer's credit card company. customer_purchase_ip
A relevant document or contract showing the customer's signature. customer_signature
Any communication with the customer that you feel is relevant to your case (e.g., emails proving that they received the product or service, or demonstrating their use of or satisfaction with the product or service). customer_communication
Any receipt or message sent to the customer notifying them of the charge. This field will be automatically filled with a Stripe generated email receipt if any such receipt was sent. receipt
A description of the product or service and any relevant details on how this was presented to the customer at the time of purchase. product_description

The more information your integration collects and passes to Stripe when your customer makes a payment, the better your ability to prevent disputes and fraud from occurring.

Dispute categories

The customer claims that the purchased product was returned or the transaction was otherwise canceled, but you have not yet provided a refund or credit.

Required to overturn dispute: Demonstrate that you’ve issued a refund to your customer through other means or that they aren’t entitled to one. You can’t issue one while a payment is being disputed. If you believe that they were entitled to a refund that you didn’t provide, you can accept the dispute.

How to respond: The first thing you should do is contact your customer. If you understand what their complaint is, you may be able to explain the misunderstanding or resolve it. If you’re able to resolve the issue with your customer, you can ask that they withdraw the dispute.

In addition to the following evidence, your submission should include correspondence with the cardholder saying they would withdraw the dispute, and a written statement from their card issuer confirming that the dispute has been withdrawn.

Description Parameter
Your refund policy, as shown or provided to the customer. refund_policy
An explanation of how and when the customer was shown or provided your refund policy prior to purchase. refund_policy_disclosure
Your explanation for why the customer is not entitled to a refund. refund_refusal_explanation
Description Parameter
Your refund policy, as shown or provided to the customer. refund_policy
An explanation of how and when the customer was shown or provided your refund policy prior to purchase. refund_policy_disclosure
Your explanation for why the customer is not entitled to a refund. refund_refusal_explanation
Description Parameter
Your refund policy, as shown or provided to the customer. refund_policy
An explanation of how and when the customer was shown or provided your refund policy prior to purchase. refund_policy_disclosure
Your explanation for why the customer is not entitled to a refund. refund_refusal_explanation

How to prevent it: Have a clear return policy and make it easy to find. For customers requesting a replacement or refund, make sure to honor your returns or refund policy promptly.

The customer claims they were charged multiple times for the same product or service.

Required to overturn dispute: Demonstrate that each payment was for a separate product or service.

How to respond: Determine if your customer was incorrectly charged multiple times. If they were not, collect any and all information documenting that each payment was made separately, such as copies of receipts. If the receipts don’t include the items purchased, be sure to include an itemized list. Each receipt should clearly indicate that the payments are for separate purchases of items or services. If you’ve been able to get in touch with the customer you should be sure to address any concerns they had in your evidence.

If they were duplicate payments, you should accept the dispute. You cannot issue a refund while a payment is being disputed. If there have been two or more separate payments, you should get in touch with your customer. If you understand what their complaint is, there is a chance for you to explain the misunderstanding or to make it right. If you’re able to resolve the issue with your customer, you can ask that they withdraw the dispute.

Description Parameter
The charge ID for the previous payment that appears to be a duplicate of the one that is disputed. duplicate_charge_id
An explanation of the difference between the disputed payment and the prior one that appears to be a duplicate. duplicate_charge_explanation
Documentation for the prior payment that can uniquely identify it, such as a separate receipt. This document should be paired with a similar document from the disputed payment that proves the two are separate. This should also include a separate shipping label or receipt for the other payment. If multiple products were shipped together, provide a packing list that shows each purchase. duplicate_charge_documentation
A shipping label or receipt for the disputed payment. shipping_documentation
Description Parameter
The charge ID for the previous payment that appears to be a duplicate of the one that is disputed. duplicate_charge_id
An explanation of the difference between the disputed payment and the prior one that appears to be a duplicate. duplicate_charge_explanation
Documentation for the prior payment that can uniquely identify it, such as a separate receipt. This document should be paired with a similar document from the disputed payment that proves the two are separate. duplicate_charge_documentation
Description Parameter
The charge ID for the previous payment that appears to be a duplicate of the one that is disputed. duplicate_charge_id
An explanation of the difference between the disputed payment and the prior one that appears to be a duplicate. duplicate_charge_explanation
Documentation for the prior payment that can uniquely identify it, such as a separate receipt or service documentation. This document should be paired with a similar document from the disputed payment that proves the two are separate. duplicate_charge_documentation
A copy of a service agreement or documentation for the disputed payment. service_documentation

If a disputed charge is categorized as a duplicate but no duplicate charge exists, there is no way to provide a duplicate charge ID when prompted to supply evidence in the Dashboard. In such cases, you can select All Fields from the gear menu and provide alternate evidence that is applicable to the dispute in question.

How to prevent it: Ensure your Stripe integration can handle errors without double-charging. If a customer’s card is charged more than once accidentally, you should right the duplicates immediately and get in touch with your customer. Sending detailed receipts that explain each payment also help prevent this type of dispute in the future.

This is the most common reason for a dispute and happens when a cardholder claims that they didn’t authorize the payment. This can happen if the card was lost or stolen and used to make a fraudulent purchase. It can also happen if the cardholder doesn’t recognize the payment as it appears on the billing statement from their card issuer.

Required to overturn dispute: Provide adequate payment and order details so that a legitimate customer recognizes it, or proves to the card issuer that their cardholder authorized the transaction.

How to respond: The first thing you should do is contact your customer. Sometimes people forget about payments they make or don’t recognize the way they appear on their card statement. If this is the case, ask them to contact their card issuer and let them know they no longer dispute the transaction. Even if your customer agrees to withdraw the dispute, you must still submit appropriate evidence. Simply saying that your customer is going to withdraw the dispute is not sufficient evidence.

It may be more efficient—and provide a better customer experience—to accept an accidental dispute and charge the customer again, if appropriate. Even when a dispute is withdrawn, it usually takes approximately 75 days to be finalized. Remember, it doesn’t matter to the card networks whether you win or lose a dispute; what matters is how many disputes a business receives, regardless of how many disputes are won.

If you believe the payment was actually made using a stolen credit card, you will need to accept the dispute. The credit card networks place liability for accepting fraudulent payments with you, the business. However, if you believe the dispute is not valid, you can attempt to prove this by submitting the appropriate evidence.

Description Parameter
Evidence such as photographs or emails to prove a link between the person receiving products and the cardholder, or proving that the cardholder disputing the transaction is in possession of the products.
Compelling Evidence
customer_communication
Evidence that the person who signed for the products was authorized to sign for—or is known by—the cardholder. If the products are collected from a physical location, you must provide:
  • Cardholder signature on the pickup form
  • A copy of identification presented by the cardholder
  • Details of identification presented by the cardholder
Compelling Evidence
customer_signature
The address a physical product was shipped to. The shipping address must match a billing address verified with AVS. (A signature is not required as evidence of delivery). You must also provide documentation as proof that a product was shipped to the cardholder at the same address the cardholder provided to you. This could include a copy of the shipment receipt or label, and show the full shipping address of the cardholder, if possible.
Compelling Evidence
shipping_address
shipping_documentation
The date that a physical product began its route to the shipping address, in a clear human-readable format. This date should be prior to the date of the dispute. shipping_date
The delivery service that shipped a physical product, such as Fedex, UPS, USPS, etc. If multiple carriers were used for this purchase, separate them with commas. shipping_carrier
The tracking number for a physical product, obtained from the delivery service. If multiple tracking numbers were generated for this purchase, separate them with commas. When we compile your evidence into a single document, these tracking numbers will be expanded to include detailed delivery information from the carrier. shipping_tracking_number
Use this for any of the following:
  • Evidence that products were shipped to a business address and that the customer works there
  • A signed order form for products purchased by mail or phone order
  • Evidence that the transaction was completed by a member of the cardholder's family or household
  • Evidence of one or more non-disputed payments for the same products
  • For recurring payments: evidence of a legally binding contract held between your business and the cardholder, that the cardholder is using the products, and of any previous payments not disputed
Compelling Evidence
uncategorized_file
uncategorized_text
Description Parameter
Description, date, and time of the products or services successfully downloaded. The evidence must also contain at least two of the following pieces of information:
  • Customer's IP address and their device's geographical location at the time of purchase
  • Device ID and name of the device
  • Customer name and email address linked to their customer profile
  • Evidence that the customer logged into their account for your business before the transaction date
  • Evidence that your website or app was accessed by the cardholder for purchase or services on or after the transaction date
  • Evidence that the same device and card used in the disputed payment was used in a previous payment that was not disputed
Compelling Evidence
product_description
access_activity_logs
Description Parameter
Evidence such as photographs or emails to prove a link between the person receiving products and the cardholder, or proving that the cardholder disputing the transaction is using the service.
Compelling Evidence
customer_communication
Evidence that the person who signed for the products was authorized to sign for—or is known by—the cardholder.
Compelling Evidence
customer_signature

Documentation showing proof that a service was provided to the cardholder, including the date that the cardholder received or began receiving the purchased service in a clear human-readable format. This could include a copy of a signed contract, work order, or other form of written agreement.

For passenger transportation or services or travel and expense transactions, evidence that the service was provided and any of the following:

  • Proof that the ticket was received at the cardholder's billing address
  • Evidence of payments related to the disputed payment, such as seat upgrades, extra baggage, and purchases made on board the passenger transport
  • Details of loyalty program rewards earned or redeemed, including address and phone number, that establish a link to the cardholder
  • Evidence that other payments related to the original payment, like upgrades, were not disputed
Compelling Evidence
service_date
service_documentation
Use this for any of the following:
  • A signed order form for products purchased by mail or phone order
  • Evidence that the transaction was completed by a member of the cardholder's family or household
  • Evidence of one or more non-disputed payments for the same products
  • For recurring payments: evidence of a legally binding contract held between your business and the cardholder, that the cardholder is using the products, and of any previous payments not disputed
Compelling Evidence
uncategorized_file
uncategorized_text

How to prevent it: This is the hardest type of dispute to win so make sure to have clear communication with your customer and measures in place to avoid fraudulent payments. For instance:

  • Make sure your statement descriptor is easily recognizable to your customers and reflects the URL they would associate with their purchase
  • Send receipts upon payment so your customers can recall what they paid for
  • If you ship physical products, consider shipping only to addresses that match a verified billing address or reaching out to the customer before shipping to a different addresses

This is an uncategorized dispute, so you should contact the customer for additional details to find out why the payment was disputed.

The customer claims they did not receive the products or services purchased.

Required to overturn dispute: Prove that the customer received a physical product or offline service, or used a digital product or online service. This must have occurred prior to the date the dispute was initiated.

How to respond: The first thing you should do is contact your customer. Understanding why they filed the dispute will be important for helping make sure your customer gets the product and will give you critical information to prevent this from happening to others.

Description Parameter
Evidence such as photographs or emails to prove a link between the person receiving products and the cardholder, or proving that the cardholder disputing the transaction is in possession of the products.
Compelling Evidence
customer_communication
Evidence that the person who signed for the products was authorized to sign for—or is known by—the cardholder. If the products are collected from a physical location, you must provide:
  • Cardholder signature on the pickup form
  • A copy of identification presented by the cardholder
  • Details of identification presented by the cardholder
Compelling Evidence
customer_signature
The address that a physical product was shipped to. The shipping address must match a billing address verified with AVS. (A signature is not required as evidence of delivery). You must also provide documentation as proof that a product was shipped to the cardholder at the same address the cardholder provided to you. This could include a copy of the shipment receipt or label, and show the full shipping address of the cardholder, if possible.
Compelling Evidence
shipping_address
shipping_documentation
The date that a physical product began its route to the shipping address, in a clear human-readable format. This date should be prior to the date of the dispute. shipping_date
The delivery service that shipped a physical product, such as Fedex, UPS, USPS, etc. If multiple carriers were used for this purchase, separate them with commas. shipping_carrier
The tracking number for a physical product, obtained from the delivery service. If multiple tracking numbers were generated for this purchase, separate them with commas. When we compile your evidence into a single document, these tracking numbers will be expanded to include detailed delivery information from the carrier. shipping_tracking_number
Use this for any of the following:
  • Evidence that products were shipped to a business address and that the customer works there
  • A signed order form for products purchased by mail or phone order
  • Evidence that the transaction was completed by a member of the cardholder's family or household
  • Evidence of one or more non-disputed payments for the same products
  • For recurring payments: evidence of a legally binding contract held between your business and the cardholder, that the cardholder is using the products, and of any previous payments not disputed
  • If in the Europe region, evidence that the cardholder has been compensated for the value of the merchandise or services through another method
Compelling Evidence
uncategorized_file
uncategorized_text
Description Parameter
Description, date, and time of the products or services successfully downloaded. The evidence must also contain at least two of the following pieces of information:
  • Customer's IP address and their device's geographical location at the time of purchase
  • Device ID and name of the device
  • Customer name and email address linked to their customer profile
  • Evidence that the customer logged into their account for your business before the transaction date
  • Evidence that your website or app was accessed by the cardholder for purchase or services on or after the transaction date
  • Evidence that the same device and card used in the disputed payment was used in a previous payment that was not disputed
Compelling Evidence
product_description
access_activity_logs
Description Parameter
Evidence such as photographs or emails to prove a link between the person receiving products and the cardholder, or proving that the cardholder disputing the transaction is using the service.
Compelling Evidence
customer_communication
Evidence that the person who signed for the products was authorized to sign for—or is known by—the cardholder.
Compelling Evidence
customer_signature

Documentation showing proof that a service was provided to the cardholder, including the date that the cardholder received or began receiving the purchased service in a clear human-readable format. This could include a copy of a signed contract, work order, or other form of written agreement.

For passenger transportation or services or travel and expense transactions, evidence that the service was provided and any of the following:

  • Proof that the ticket was received at the cardholder's billing address
  • Evidence of payments related to the disputed payment, such as seat upgrades, extra baggage, and purchases made on board the passenger transport
  • Details of loyalty program rewards earned or redeemed, including address and phone number, that establish a link to the cardholder
  • Evidence that other payments related to the original payment, like upgrades, were not disputed
Compelling Evidence
service_date
service_documentation
Use this for any of the following:
  • A signed order form for products purchased by mail or phone order
  • Evidence that the transaction was completed by a member of the cardholder's family or household
  • Evidence of one or more non-disputed payments for the same products
  • For recurring payments: evidence of a legally binding contract held between your business and the cardholder, that the cardholder is using the products, and of any previous payments not disputed
  • If in the Europe region, evidence that the cardholder has been compensated for the value of the merchandise or services through another method
Compelling Evidence
uncategorized_file
uncategorized_text

How to prevent it: For physical products, promptly ship them after collecting payment. Estimate shipping and delivery dates as accurately as you can, and communicate clearly with your customer. If shipping delays arise unexpectedly, keep your customer informed. Save shipping labels, and for high value products consider requiring a signature upon receipt. For digital goods or services, maintain access logs or documentation that tie use back to the customer.

The product or service was received but was defective, damaged, or not as described.

Required to overturn dispute: Demonstrate that the product or service was delivered as described at the time of purchase.

How to respond: If the product or service is as described, provide specific information (invoice, contract, etc.) to refute the cardholder’s claims. Quality disputes are where the customer does not agree with the condition of merchandise or service received (e.g., a car repair situation or quality of a hotel room). There may be instances where you will need to obtain a neutral third-party opinion to help corroborate your claim against the cardholder. Provide as much specific information and documentation as possible to refute the cardholder’s claims. It is recommended that you address each point that the cardholder has made.

If the customer has not yet returned the product or canceled the service, provide specific information to that effect. You should double-check your incoming shipping records to verify that you have not received a return before you respond. If you have processed a credit or reversal for this transaction, provide evidence of this which includes the amount and date processed.

For products that have been repaired or replaced, provide evidence that the cardholder agreed to a repair or replacement, it has been received by the customer, and the repair or replacement has not since been disputed.

If the customer no longer disputes the transaction, provide a letter or email from the cardholder stating that they are no longer in dispute.

Description Parameter
The address to which a physical product was shipped. You should try to include as much complete address information as possible. The shipping address should match a verified billing address to maximize your likelihood of winning the dispute. shipping_address
The date on which a physical product began its route to the shipping address, in a clear human-readable format. This date should be prior to the date of the dispute. shipping_date
The delivery service that shipped a physical product, such as Fedex, UPS, USPS, etc. If multiple carriers were used for this purchase, please separate them with commas. shipping_carrier
The tracking number for a physical product, obtained from the delivery service. If multiple tracking numbers were generated for this purchase, please separate them with commas. When we compile your evidence into a single document, these tracking numbers will be expanded to include detailed delivery information from the carrier. shipping_tracking_number
Documentation showing proof that a product was shipped to the cardholder at the same address the cardholder provided to you. This could include a copy of the shipment receipt, shipping label, etc, and should show the full shipping address of the cardholder, if possible. shipping_documentation
Description Parameter
Any server or activity logs showing proof that the cardholder accessed or downloaded the purchased digital product. This information should include IP addresses, corresponding timestamps, and any detailed recorded activity. access_activity_log
Description Parameter
The date on which the cardholder received or began receiving the purchased service, in a clear human-readable format. service_date
Documentation showing proof that a service was provided to the cardholder. This could include a copy of a signed contract, work order, or other form of written agreement. service_documentation

If your customer made no attempt to return the product or cancel the service, or if you provided a replacement product or service, make sure to note that as well.

How to prevent it: Ensure that the description of products or services shown in advertisements, online, and transaction receipts, or used in telephone order-taking scripts are accurate, complete, and not misleading. You should never refer cardholders to the manufacturer in lieu of attempting to resolve the issue directly—the business selling the product or service is liable and must be the point of contact for resolution. Also keep in mind that your return policy has no bearing on this type of dispute.

The customer claims that you continued to charge them after a subscription was canceled.

Required to overturn dispute: Prove that the subscription was still active and that the customer was aware of, and did not follow, your cancellation procedure.

How to respond: First, get in touch with your customer. If you understand what they believe happened, there is a chance for you to explain the misunderstanding or to make it right.

Description Parameter
Your subscription cancellation policy, as shown to the customer. cancellation_policy
An explanation of how and when the customer was shown your cancellation policy prior to purchase. cancellation_policy_disclosure
A justification for why the customer's subscription was not canceled. cancellation_rebuttal
A notification sent to the customer of a renewal or continuation of the subscription, or an acknowledgement from the customer of their continued use of the product or service after the date they claim they canceled the subscription (if available). customer_communication
Description Parameter
Any server or activity logs showing proof that the cardholder accessed or downloaded the purchased digital product. This information should include IP addresses, corresponding timestamps, and any detailed recorded activity. access_activity_log
Your subscription cancellation policy, as shown to the customer. cancellation_policy
An explanation of how and when the customer was shown your cancellation policy prior to purchase. cancellation_policy_disclosure
A justification for why the customer's subscription was not canceled. cancellation_rebuttal
A notification sent to the customer of a renewal or continuation of the subscription, or an acknowledgement from the customer of their continued use of the product or service after the date they claim they canceled the subscription (if available). customer_communication
Description Parameter
Your subscription cancellation policy, as shown to the customer. cancellation_policy
An explanation of how and when the customer was shown your cancellation policy prior to purchase. cancellation_policy_disclosure
A justification for why the customer's subscription was not canceled. cancellation_rebuttal
A notification sent to the customer of a renewal or continuation of the subscription, or an acknowledgement from the customer of their continued use of the product or service after the date they claim they canceled the subscription (if available). customer_communication
The date on which the cardholder received or began receiving the purchased service, in a clear human-readable format. service_date
Documentation showing proof that a service was provided to the cardholder. This could include a copy of a signed contract, work order, or other form of written agreement. service_documentation

How to prevent it: Promptly cancel subscriptions upon request, making sure to pass the cancellation along to Stripe if you use our subscription functionality and provide your customer with a confirmation of the cancellation. Make it clear on your signup page that your customers are agreeing to a recurring payment and include information about whether or not you plan to notify the customer before each payment. Make sure cancellation procedures are clearly communicated to your customers.

The customer doesn’t recognize the payment appearing on their card statement.

Required to overturn dispute: As with fraudulent disputes, get your customer to withdraw the dispute by helping them identify the payment.

How to respond: First, try to get in touch with your customer. Sometimes people forget about payments they make or don’t recognize the way they appear on their card statement. If this is the case, ask them to contact their card issuer and let them know they no longer dispute the transaction. Even if your customer agrees to withdraw the dispute, you must still submit appropriate evidence. Simply saying that your customer is going to withdraw the dispute is not sufficient evidence.

It may be more efficient—and provide a better customer experience—to accept an accidental dispute and charge the customer again, if appropriate. Even when a dispute is withdrawn, it usually takes approximately 75 days to be finalized. Remember, it doesn’t matter to the card networks whether you win or lose a dispute; what matters is how many disputes a business receives, regardless of how many disputes are won.

Description Parameter
The address to which a physical product was shipped. You should try to include as much complete address information as possible. The shipping address should match a verified billing address to maximize your likelihood of winning the dispute. shipping_address
The date on which a physical product began its route to the shipping address, in a clear human-readable format. This date should be prior to the date of the dispute. shipping_date
The delivery service that shipped a physical product, such as Fedex, UPS, USPS, etc. If multiple carriers were used for this purchase, please separate them with commas. shipping_carrier
The tracking number for a physical product, obtained from the delivery service. If multiple tracking numbers were generated for this purchase, please separate them with commas. When we compile your evidence into a single document, these tracking numbers will be expanded to include detailed delivery information from the carrier. shipping_tracking_number
Documentation showing proof that a product was shipped to the cardholder at the same address the cardholder provided to you. This could include a copy of the shipment receipt, shipping label, etc, and should show the full shipping address of the cardholder, if possible. shipping_documentation
Description Parameter
Any server or activity logs showing proof that the cardholder accessed or downloaded the purchased digital product. This information should include IP addresses, corresponding timestamps, and any detailed recorded activity. access_activity_log
Description Parameter
The date on which the cardholder received or began receiving the purchased service, in a clear human-readable format. service_date
Documentation showing proof that a service was provided to the cardholder. This could include a copy of a signed contract, work order, or other form of written agreement. service_documentation

How to prevent it: Make sure your statement descriptor is easily recognizable to your customers (and reflects the URL they would associate with their purchase) so they can tell who charged them. If you are not sending email receipts already, consider sending them to customers to help them remember their purchases.

Next steps

Now that you have learned about the different reasons for disputes, you may want to learn more about dispute withdrawals, or move on to related subjects:

If you require assistance with a dispute, please contact Stripe support.

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