Querying Billing

    Use Stripe Sigma to retrieve information about Billing.

    Billing is made up of different components that work together to provide one-off invoices and periodic billing, with different aspects of billing data available across a number of tables. All billing-specific tables are found in the Billing section of the schema, with the primary tables being subscriptions and invoices.

    To explore billing data further, you can make use of the additional tables that represent the components of subscriptions and invoices, such as plans, products, or coupons. In addition, the customers table is a fundamental part of billing, and contains data you may need to report on.


    Each row within the subscriptions table represents data about an individual Subscription object—the same information that can be retrieved through the API or available in the Dashboard. Every subscription that has been created on your account can be reported on.

    This table is our recommended starting point for creating reports about your current subscribers. You can join this to other related tables, allowing you to explore your data in more detail.

    The following example retrieves a list of subscriptions that have been marked as unpaid, along with any available contact information for the customer.

    from subscriptions
    inner join customers
      on customers.id=subscriptions.customer_id
      subscriptions.status = 'unpaid'
    limit 5
    id customer_id email
    sub_QwRcUnZl9ceYpGM cus_OWzeAv1QMGgXWEv jenny.rosen@example.com
    sub_cmOxdWMOAf4ldwT cus_5643AdWuRKrfKeJ noah.wilson@example.com
    sub_9xBs9rr1oMTprBl cus_EU36CZRrPRo4kQC joshua.miller@example.com
    sub_f2L0tSwxiDIBNnH cus_CB0z8izMaa5WSp4 madison.jackson@example.com
    sub_OzbgwyqPx6cGNX4 cus_4xigUspp1FWLnFR elijah.smith@example.com


    Data about Customer objects is contained in the customers table (this is not part of the Billing Tables group). It is commonly used as part of billing-based reports and can be joined to a number of tables. It’s also useful if you’re creating charges with saved payment information.

    The following example retrieves a list of customers with subscriptions that are currently in a trial period. Both the ID and email address for each customer is retrieved.

    from subscriptions
    inner join customers
    on customers.id=subscriptions.customer_id
    where subscriptions.status = 'trialing'
    limit 5
    id email plan_id
    cus_Kl00iSrReuJUIWd jenny.rosen@example.com ruby-pro-522
    cus_DBMAWkRCzk3u9mS noah.wilson@example.com ruby-pro-522
    cus_JhjtTCpxC2PJgrV richard.jones@example.com gold-basic-221
    cus_Mx66FpKJBz7S2zV madison.jackson@example.com gold-basic-221
    cus_eeP3ZwvSlyXmOCZ elijah.smith@example.com silver-pro-498

    Products & Plans

    Products describe items that your customers can purchase with a subscription. Plans are tied to products and set out the cost, billing interval, and currency. When viewing data from the subscriptions table, subscriptions.plan_id can be joined to plans.id, and plans.product_id can be joined to products.id. The following example returns a list of active subscriptions along with the product name and its statement descriptor.

    from subscriptions
    inner join plans
      on subscriptions.plan_id=plans.id
    inner join products
      on plans.product_id=products.id
      subscriptions.status = 'active'
    limit 10
    id name statement_descriptor
    sub_uGcA1DGBM9tMVL7 ruby-pro-522 Ruby Pro
    sub_BXyJjWgcIquVtlN gold-basic-221 Gold Basic
    sub_XMGjQ2YLFzPQwde silver-pro-498 Silver Pro
    sub_aFRY7ipJcde8Ltv diamond-mid-244 Diamond Mid
    sub_kfkbaLsXSEcs7bs ruby-standard-196 Ruby Standard


    The invoices table contains data about individual Invoice objects. Each subscription generates an invoice on a recurring basis that represents the amount the customer owes. This automatically includes the amount required for the subscription, as well as any additional invoice items that may have been created (listed as line items).

    Invoices are comprised of individual (invoice) line items. These line items represent any subscriptions that the customer is billed for, as well as invoice items that have been created and applied to the invoice. To break down an invoice and analyze each of its line items, use the invoice_line_items table.

    The source_id column of this table contains the ID of either the subscription (e.g., sub_oGbF17LyTy1e1lh) or invoice item (e.g., ii_jOwAYVkT7zjd2rv) that the line item corresponds to. The source_type column reflects whether the line items represents a subscription or an invoice item.

    Unlike other foreign keys, the subscription column of the invoice_line_items table isn’t always populated. If the corresponding invoice item is a subscription, this column is blank––its ID already appears in the source_id column.

    Invoice items

    Data about Invoice items is provided in the invoice_items table. Invoice items are commonly used to specify an additional amount (or deduct an amount) that should be applied on the next invoice at the beginning of the next billing cycle. For instance, you would create an invoice item if you need to bill your customer for exceeding their monthly allowance, or if you need to provide a credit on the next invoice for unused service.

    The following example retrieves all of the invoices and associated charge IDs for a particular subscription.

    from invoices
    where subscription_id = 'sub_ALJXL9gBYtv6GJ'
    id name
    in_2VqUYZEWp6BFGAJ ch_W97mzkmm6SvObaH 1999
    in_AEfnhvAOJD6OlRJ ch_PCeCkhVW9S9mUA0 1999
    in_idBpPX8hZL3J240 1999 ch_VMH0D3F9Lt5XSKY
    in_wPqEFjbMZOaMSum 1999 ch_7dtaZuMYHuUK2q1
    in_xKOi83eaishWUib 1999 ch_BB6p8ztXJHQSpBt

    Invoice totals and discounts

    The invoice subtotal represents the amount of all subscriptions, invoice items, and prorations on the invoice before any discount is applied. The invoice total is the amount after discounts and tax have been applied:

    invoice.total = invoice.subtotal - discount + invoice.tax

    There is no column to represent the discount amount on an invoice. Instead, you can calculate this by using the total, subtotal, and tax amounts:

    discount = invoice.total - invoice.tax - invoice.subtotal

    Working with invoice dates and periods

    As subscription invoices are pre-billed, the customer pays at the start of a billing period. This is reflected in the value for a line item’s period. For instance, a customer on a monthly subscription is charged at the start of each month. If they cancel, their subscription remains active until the end of that month, at which point the subscription ends.

    The period_start and period_end values of an invoice represents when invoice items may have been created–it is not always indicative of the period of service that the customer is being billed for. For example, if a customer is billed on the 1st of each month and exceeds their monthly allowance on the 15th, you might create an invoice item for any additional costs that the customer should be charged for. This invoice item is then included in the next invoice, which is created on the 1st of the next month. When the next invoice is generated, the period_start date would be 15th of the previous month: the date the additional line item was first created.

    Coupons and discounts

    A Coupon object represents an amount or percentage-off discount that can be applied to subscriptions or customers. A discount is the application of a coupon, represented by a Discount object.

    Discounts are not tabulated separately. Instead, join coupon.id to either customers.discount_coupon_id or subscriptions.discount_coupon_id . This returns the coupon information for the discount that has been applied. For example, the following query returns a list of subscriptions where a coupon was applied to create a discount, along with the coupon’s discount amount or percentage.

    from coupons
    where valid = false
    limit 5
    id amount_off percent_off
    10FF 10
    SUMMER25 25
    10FREE 10
    15OFF 15
    FALL30 30


    We're always happy to help with code or other questions you might have. Search our documentation, contact support, or connect with our sales team. You can also chat live with other developers in #stripe on freenode.

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